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Laboratory and Field Procedures for Measuring the Sulfate

In Figures 1 3 and 4 the sulfate content of the manufactured samples determined by each lab has been divided into coarse-grained gypsum (#10#40 sieve) and fine-grained gypsum (#200 sieve) because the labs (except Ana-Lab) generally had more difficulty detecting all of the coarse-grained sulfates

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Analysis of total chloride content in concrete

Total chloride content is the total amount of chloride ion in a sample of concrete including bound in the solid phases and free chlorides in the pore solution Free chloride content is the amount of chloride ion in the pore solution as obtained by squeezing con- crete samples at high pressures

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DETERMINING CHLORIDE AND SULFATE CONTENTS IN SOIL

chloride and sulfate ions Note 5—Follow the manufacturer's recommendation for ion chromatograph operation 7 5 Obtain chloride and sulfate contents in ppm as determined by the ion chromatograph Use conversion factors to convert to ppm chloride and sulfate content in the original sample

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Hardened Concrete Analysis

Hardened Concrete Analysis Cement Content and Aggregate Cement Ratio - This analysis can be carried out using the method given in BS1881 1988 and can include chloride content sulphate content and alkali metals content on either a general sample or a matrix rich sample (a hand separated sample rich in cement) This method can be used

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Critical chloride content in reinforced concrete

If the penetration of chloride as a function of depth (x) and time (t) is known Cl(x t) the chloride threshold may be measured as the chloride content detected at the depth of the bars when corrosion initiates i e Clth = Cl(x = c t = ti) where c is the thickness of the concrete cover and ti is the initiation time

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Sulfate attack in concrete

Sulfate can be supplied from a range of sources groundwater or bricks are common examples Carbonate can be supplied from atmospheric CO 2 or from limestone present in the concrete or mortar Serious damage to concrete or masonry due to thaumasite formation is not a common occurrence even in cool damp climates

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What is Efflorescence in Bricks and Concrete?

Usually sulphate of magnesium calcium sulphate and carbonate (and sometimes chloride and nitrates) of sodium and potassium are found in efflorescence These salts may be traced to the brick itself sand used in construction the foundation soil ground water water used in the construction and loose earth left over in contact with brick work

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Effect of Chloride Attack on Durability of Concrete

The revised IS-456-2000 has specified the chloride content as chlorine (CI) in concrete at the time of placing as shown Table 17 11 The amount of chloride needed for starting or initiating the corrosion of reinforcement partly depends on the pH value of the pore water in the concrete

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Permissible Levels of Chlorides and Sulfates in Aggregate

(If so you could have nearly 2 pounds of chloride per cubic yard or 0 4% chloride by weight of cement enough to reject the concrete even if all other components contain no chloride at all ) For the SO3 limit 0 4% SO3 by weight of concrete may be equivalent to about 3% by weight of cement doubling the equivalent SO3 in the portland cement and effectively surpassing any ASTM C 150 limit

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DURABILITY OF CONCRETE IN SOIL OR GROUNDWATER

Sulfate reacts with calcium hydroxide and tricalcium aluminate in the hardened concrete to form reaction products which are greater in volume than the reactants and depending on the concentration of sulfate and the amounts of these compounds in the hardened concrete the concrete is distorted or disrupted

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What are Different Chemical Tests on Concrete Structures?

Chloride Content Test on Concrete Structures Chloride content can be determined from broken samples or core samples of concrete Primarily the level of chloride near the steel-concrete interface is of prime importance Chloride present in concrete are fixed (water insoluble) as well as free (water soluble)

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EFFECT OF CARBONATION CHLORIDE AND SULPHATE

resistance of concrete to chloride ion penetration can be improved by reduction of the water-cement ratio The content of chloride ion is higher in concrete stressed in tension than in unstressed concrete For concrete stressed in compression chloride content depends on stress level Salt solution immersion is more severe than salt spray

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Carbonation and Chloride of concrete

Annua Concrete Sem nar 2005 Annual Concrete Seminar 2005 1 Carbonation Chloride Penetration of Concrete Structures Dr Tommy oo City University of Hong Kong Annual Concrete Seminar 2005Annua Concrete Sem nar 2005 2 Durable concrete must have the ability to withstand the potentially deteriorative conditions to which it can reasonably be

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sulphate and chloride contents of concrete aggregates

Chloride Content of Fresh Concrete of chloride content sourced from aggregate mixing water and admixtures shall not be greater than the values shown in Table 1 If chloride contents calculated for a particular mix exceed the relevant limit the materials must be changed or the mix modified to reduce the chloride content1

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Analysis of total chloride content in concrete

Hence the limits of total chloride content in concrete could be violated even though the limits of chloride content for mix ingredients are satisfied Therefore it can be stated that chloride limits of concrete ingredients and total concrete could not be consistent especially with mix designs that have water cement ratios higher than 0 48

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Effect of moisture chloride and sulphate contamination on

In 10 15 20 25 SULFATE CONTAMINATION kg/m3 Figure 6 Variation of electrical resistivity of concrete with sulphate- contamination and 1 5% moisture content Moisture chloride and sulphate contamination M Saleem et al 213 the event of initiation of reinforcement corrosion due to carbonation the sustenance of reinforcement corro- sion is

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Effects of Substances on Concrete and Guide to Protective

Cement content—at least 335 kg/m3 (564 lb/yd3) of cemen titious material should be used for concrete exposed to severe freeze-thaw deicer and sulfate environments Suitable cement type—cement should be suited to the exposure such as sulfate-resistant cement to help prevent sulfate attack (Table 1)

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Conversion of chloride content and sulphates into ppm

Feb 26 2011Conversion of chloride content and sulphates into ppm Sulphates will also attack concrete Chlorides do not attack concrete however they aggressively attack steel (rebar and embedments) Low pH attacks steel however high pH such as in concrete actually passivates and protects steel as long as there is not a strong oxidizer (such as chloride)

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EFFECT OF CHLORIDE CONCENTRATION IN SOIL ON

chloride ions into the hardened concrete in substructures from the soil While several standards [1 2] provide information on the preventive measures for avoiding sulfate attack based on the sulfate concentration in the soil and ground water (for example the type of cement water-to-cement ratio cement content etc ) there are no

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Evaluation of Chloride Limits for Reinforced Concrete Phase A

The total chloride content in a concrete mixture can be estimated when the mixture proportions are being developed for the project This involves calculating the total chloride content based on measured chloride content of the materials and the concrete mixture proportions

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Determination of Chloride and Sulfate in Water and Soil

for sulfate is 250 mg/L because that concentration can impart a bitter-to-salty taste to the water at a The determination of chloride and sulfate in water and soil is also important because these anions can have a corrosive impact on concrete structures For instance a sulfate anion carried through rain

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Effect of Potassium Chloride (KCl) on Ordinary Portland

minutes when potassium chloride content is 14 g/l which is 40 minutes more than that of control water sample Effect on Strength of OPC Concrete Average compressive strength of three cubes and split tensile strength of three cylinders prepared with different concentrations of KCL is compared with that of

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Types and Causes of Concrete Deterioration

chloride ions penetrate the protective oxide film easier than do other ions leaving the steel vulnerable to corrosion The risk of corrosion increases as the chloride content of concrete increases When the chloride content at the surface of the steel exceeds a certain

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What is Efflorescence in Bricks and Concrete?

Bricks with magnesium sulphate content higher than 0 05 percent should not be used in construction Soluble salt content in sand (chloride and sulphate together) should not exceed 0 1 percent Water if it finds access to brick work moves along its pores by capillary action and carries with it dissolved salts

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Sulphate attack in Concrete Its Effects Causes and

Jul 17 2016Contents Sources of Sulfates Internal sources External Sources Main factors affecting sulphate attack 1 Cement type and content 2 Fly ash addition 3 Sulphate concentration 4 Chloride ions Control of sulphate attack Solution of the sulfates of various bases including sodium potassium magnesium and calcium react

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EFFECT OF CARBONATION CHLORIDE AND SULPHATE

sulphate-induced concrete corrosion depth due to sulphate attacks was experimentally studied The content of chloride ion is higher in concrete stressed in tension than in unstressed concrete For concrete stressed in compression chloride content depends on stress level Salt solution immersion is more severe than salt spray

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Sulfate attack in concrete

This paper presents both the chloride and sulphate profiles of a normal weight concrete of 50 MPa (NWC50) and a total lightweight concrete of 50 MPa (LWC50) strength concretes after 1 and 7 days of initial curing and subsequent exposure to hot humid (seaside) conditions for a period of 3 years

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Standard Test Method for Acid

3 1 The amount of acid-soluble chloride in most hydraulic-cement systems is equal to the total amount of chloride in the system However some organic substances that may be introduced into mortar or concrete contain chloride that is initially acid-insoluble that can eventually ionize and thus become acid-soluble or water-soluble after a period of exposure in the very alkaline cement system

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Chloride Content of Portland Cement Concrete Powder by

cant is analyzed for chloride content using a chloride ion-selective electrode The minimum quantity of chloride required to initiate the corrosion of steel in concrete is called the chloride content corrosion threshold Although this concept has been well re ceived an agreed-upon corrosion threshold has not found wide acceptance

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sulphate and chloride contents of concrete aggregates

sulfate contents in fine aggregate fo concrete Products Video About Ciros sulfate contents in fine aggregate fo concrete Workability If fine RCM aggregates are used concrete workability decreases (due to the Limits on chloride and sulfate ASTM C87 Organic

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